Tuesday, January 19, 2016

Police power versus eminent domain.

Police power versus eminent domain.

Police power is the inherent power of the State to regulate or to restrain the use of liberty and property for public welfare.[58] The only limitation is that the restriction imposed should be reasonable, not oppressive.[59] In other words, to be a valid exercise of police power, it must have a lawful subject or objective and a lawful method of accomplishing the goal.[60] Under the police power of the State, “property rights of individuals may be subjected to restraints and burdens in order to fulfill the objectives of the government.”[61] The State “may interfere with personal liberty, property, lawful businesses and occupations to promote the general welfare [as long as] the interference [is] reasonable and not arbitrary.”[62] Eminent domain, on the other hand, is the inherent power of the State to take or appropriate private property for public use.[63] The Constitution, however, requires that private property shall not be taken without due process of law and the payment of just compensation.[64]

Traditional distinctions exist between police power and eminent domain.

In the exercise of police power, a property right is impaired by regulation,[65] or the use of property is merely prohibited, regulated or restricted[66] to promote public welfare. In such cases, there is no compensable taking, hence, payment of just compensation is not required. Examples of these regulations are property condemned for being noxious or intended for noxious purposes (e.g., a building on the verge of collapse to be demolished for public safety, or obscene materials to be destroyed in the interest of public morals)[67] as well as zoning ordinances prohibiting the use of property for purposes injurious to the health, morals or safety of the community (e.g., dividing a city’s territory into residential and industrial areas).[68] It has, thus, been observed that, in the exercise of police power (as distinguished from eminent domain), although the regulation affects the right of ownership, none of the bundle of rights which constitute ownership is appropriated for use by or for the benefit of the public.[69]

On the other hand, in the exercise of the power of eminent domain, property interests are appropriated and applied to some public purpose which necessitates the payment of just compensation therefor. Normally, the title to and possession of the property are transferred to the expropriating authority. Examples include the acquisition of lands for the construction of public highways as well as agricultural lands acquired by the government under the agrarian reform law for redistribution to qualified farmer beneficiaries. However, it is a settled rule that the acquisition of title or total destruction of the property is not essential for “taking” under the power of eminent domain to be present.[70] Examples of these include establishment of easements such as where the land owner is perpetually deprived of his proprietary rights because of the hazards posed by electric transmission lines constructed above his property[71] or the compelled interconnection of the telephone system between the government and a private company.[72] In these cases, although the private property owner is not divested of ownership or possession, payment of just compensation is warranted because of the burden placed on the property for the use or benefit of the public.

The 20% senior citizen discount is an exercise of police power.     

It may not always be easy to determine whether a challenged governmental act is an exercise of police power or eminent domain. The very nature of police power as elastic and responsive to various social conditions[73] as well as the evolving meaning and scope of public use[74] and just compensation[75] in eminent domain evinces that these are not static concepts. Because of the exigencies of rapidly changing times, Congress may be compelled to adopt or experiment with different measures to promote the general welfare which may not fall squarely within the traditionally recognized categories of police power and eminent domain. The judicious approach, therefore, is to look at the nature and effects of the challenged governmental act and decide, on the basis thereof, whether the act is the exercise of police power or eminent domain. Thus, we now look at the nature and effects of the 20% discount to determine if it constitutes an exercise of police power or eminent domain.

The 20% discount is intended to improve the welfare of senior citizens who, at their age, are less likely to be gainfully employed, more prone to illnesses and other disabilities, and, thus, in need of subsidy in purchasing basic commodities. It may not be amiss to mention also that the discount serves to honor senior citizens who presumably spent the productive years of their lives on contributing to the development and progress of the nation. This distinct cultural Filipino practice of honoring the elderly is an integral part of this law.

As to its nature and effects, the 20% discount is a regulation affecting the ability of private establishments to price their products and services relative to a special class of individuals, senior citizens, for which the Constitution affords preferential concern.[76] In turn, this affects the amount of profits or income/gross sales that a private establishment can derive from senior citizens. In other words, the subject regulation affects the pricing, and, hence, the profitability of a private establishment. However, it does not purport to appropriate or burden specific properties, used in the operation or conduct of the business of private establishments, for the use or benefit of the public, or senior citizens for that matter, but merely regulates the pricing of goods and services relative to, and the amount of profits or income/gross sales that such private establishments may derive from, senior citizens.

4 comments:

replica relxs said...

In order to replica watches ensure good waterproof performance, the

quartz breitling replica watch must replace the rolex replica waterproof parts at the replica watches uk same

time.Usually the replica watches mechanical table allows the error is

about 30 swiss replica watches seconds per day, quartz rolex replica table 15 seconds per month.

replicahorlogesnederland said...

Iedereen weet dat ik ben een fan van grote replica horloges dus ik zal natuurlijk gaan voor de XL-versie als het gaat om de Ballon Bleu de Cartier replica. Nog een volledig functionele chronograaf met een mooie ronde datumvenster op 9 'klok die kruiden op de wijzerplaat. We zijn allemaal gewend om chronos op 6 en 9 uur en de replica horloges breitling datum op 3 uur, dus het is leuk om iets anders voor een verandering te zien en Cartier genageld deze keer weer.

Het is een Quartz (batterij run) beweging weer net als dial leest. 03:00 chronograaf is het leger uur en 06:00 is een kleine secondewijzer. Goede replica horloges cartier handen op de wijzerplaat en de zaak en de kroon guard zijn goed gekloond en een mooi design functie. Bekijk de volledige foto beoordeling in. Derde en laatste Cartier nep-horloge herziening van de replica horloges rolex dag is een van mijn meest recente. Dit Cartier Santos-Dumont replica horloge behoeft weinig introductie.

Anonymous said...

Ellos pierden alrededor en replicas relojes el centro con numerosas marcas que cobran generalmente la misma medida de dinero en efectivo, y utilizan los desarrollos basados ​​en ETA como Breitling. Es difĂ­cil separarse replicas de relojes en ese espacio.

imitatie horloges rolex said...

Cartier horloges hebben een grote imitatie horloges online verscheidenheid aan design en functionaliteit, met behoud van de hoogste kwaliteit en replica horloges online verfijning in elke serie.